Basic Search Tips


You can search using keywords or a specific phrase. Capitalization does not matter. Results are returned sorted by relevance (the default).

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators—AND, OR, NOT—can be added to search terms to refine results. If no operator is added, the AND operator is used automatically.

  • Enter a search term. Examples:
    1. influenza and vaccine
    2. influenza or vaccine
    3. influenza not vaccine
  • Results include:
    1. all articles with all of the search terms, influenza as well as vaccine
    2. all articles with either of the search terms, influenza or vaccine or both
    3. only articles without the excluded search term, articles with influenza that do not include vaccine

Phrase Search

Use double quotation marks to define an exact phrase or phrases.

  • Examples:
    1. "charles darwin"
    2. "charles darwin" and evolution
    3. "charles darwin" and "galapagos islands"
  • Results include:
    1. articles with charles darwin together as a phrase but not a story with, for example, the phrases "charles drew" and "erasmus darwin"
    2. articles with charles darwin as a phrase that also contain evolution
    3. articles with charles darwin as a phrase that also contain galapagos islands as a phrase

Please note: the Boolean operators OR and NOT can also be used in a Phrase Search. AND is the default.

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